Kaiser Wilhelm

How did Kaiser Wilhelm have an authoritarian government?

The original question is "assess the extent to which the unification of Germany under Bismarck, led to authoritarian government between 1871 and 1914". My teacher told me to talk about Kaiser Wilhelm so if you have anything about how he ran his government (like laws that showed that he was an absolutist) then that would be good. Thanks. :]

Here are some notes on the Kaiser and his reign. Maybe they can provide you with some answers.

Dismissing Bismarck
•Bismarck was dismissed by William II in 1890 after his father, Frederick III died in 1888.

William II
•Many small boys dressed in navy uniforms
•This showed support for the German navy
•William II was a man of paradox
•Germany seemed to prioritize all the right things
•Many people got PhDs in Germany
•Germany embarked on a policy of global proportions
•Welt (world) was used a lot in Germany
•William II rules from 1888 to 1918
•On February 24, 1892, he made God a general in the Prussian army in a ceremony
•William II was compared to a powerful battleship without a rudder
•His life turned out to be a banquet of public appearances
•He spend one third of his life on his yacht, the Hohenzollern
•He never read the constitution. He banned distribution of liberal material in the army
•He counted all of the documents he signed
•In public he made several blunders in speeches
•He continued rapid economic growth in Wilhelm Germany
•The German government encouraged monopolies
•The population also grew rapidly. (By 1914, it was 67 million)
•The birth rate was healthy. The death rate dropped. The outflow of Germans also dropped
•Germany was the most popular nation in Europe by 1913

After Bismarck
•Leo von Caprivi – He was the 1st Prime Minister after Bismarck
•Caprivi enacted many social reform laws. He banned work on Sunday. He prohibited the labor of children under the age of 13. For children aged 13 to 18, the work day was 10 hours. Womens’ hours were 11
•He tried to facilitate trade with other countries
•William II believed the SPD and workers were not appreciative and abandoned the liberal agreements. Caprivi was forced to step down
•The SPD grew enormously
•August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht – “The Old Crowd” – They supported old Marxist ideas about class
•Eduard Bernstein – “The New Crowd” – He believed class conflict was not necessary. He wanted to work within the system. His ideas fractured the SPD.

Kinder, Kueche, Kirche (Children, Kitchen, Church)
•Many believed this should be roles of women
•The German Women’s Association (BDF) was organized in 1984. It lobbied for equal education for women, legal protection in marriage, equal pay for equal work, greater opportunities for professional women, the right to vote, and equal property rights
•In 1900, the Civil Code was revised which recognized women as legal people
•Women began to enter academies as well. The first full time women students started in 1901
•The right to vote failed
•The BDF was primarily a middle class movement
•Working class women were allowed to join the SPD in 1908, through the Law of Associations
•Rural women were left out altogether. About 50% of women worked on the land
•The middle class movement for women’s rights shifted to the right. It worked to support the government
•The League for the Protection of Motherhood was established in 1904. Its goal was to provide mother colonies where unwed mothers with children could go and be supported by the state. It was also a racially biased organization. It encouraged “healthy” women to have more children
•Maria Lischnewska took over the BDF. She called for a ban on abortion. She said it should only be allowed for inferior children. She argued the strength of a nation was equal to its birthright
•The BDF pushed for the sterilization of alcoholics, the removal of voting for illiterate and mentally handicapped people, no mixed marriages, and mandatory medical exams for new couples
•The League for the Struggle Against the Emancipation of Women was founded in 1912

Sonderweg (Special Path)
•The roots of Nazism could be found in the past during the rise of Germany
•Pressure groups (veterans, German Navy League, German Colonial League, Pan-German League, and the Aquarian League) tried to push their ideas on the government
•This system was not very effective
•It might have worked if William II was politically savvy

Eulenburg and the Daily Telegraph Affair
•These were scandals that occurred during the rule of William II
•The Eulenburg Affair took place in 1907. The journalist Maximilian Harden accused Prince Eulenburg of being involved in a homosexual relationship with the city commandant
•William II encouraged his friends to sue Harden for slander. During 4 trials, a procession of pimps, thieves, and morons testified against Eulenburg
•This damaged William II’s credibility
•The Daily Telegraph Affair took place in 1908. It was based on an interview that William II gave to the Daily Telegraph, a London newspaper. It came across in a bad way to the British

A Place in the Sun
•German foreign policy under William II was disastrous
•Germany acquired colonies in Africa and Southeast Asia
•By 1914, One Half of 1% of trade went to German colonies. Colonies were costing Germany money
•The German navy was a strong symbol of world power
•The navy is identified with Alfred von Tirpitz
•He believed that Germany’s economic might needs to be transferred to the navy
•Alfred Thayer Mahan influenced him with a book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History. Every major power had a strong navy
•The other factor that influenced him was social Darwinism
•In 1897, he described to William II that sea power was a question of survival
•In 1899, the Reichstag passed bills that funded construction of 60 ships. Germany would build its navy slowly
•William II let the Reassurance Treaty lapse with Russia. He didn’t want to play Austria off on Russia
•In 1894, Russia and France allied
•There was a possibility for Britain and Germany to enter into an alliance. This did not happen because of activities of William II. Britain and France allied in 1904
•In 1907, the encirclement was complete. Britain, France, and Russia allied
•The Germans devised the Schlieffen Plan in 1905 and 1906. They would have to take out one front first, if they entered into a war. They would have to take out France first, and defeat the country within 40 days
•Britain began a naval arms race with Germany. Britain spurred forward with more naval production

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